FEMS Microbiol Lett 235:315–322, Nakano S, Fukaya M, Horinouchi S (2006) Putative ABC transporter responsible for acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti. Google Scholar, Hiraishi A (1992) Direct automated sequencing of 16S rDNA amplified by polymerase chain reaction from bacterial cultures without DNA purification. EJJ took the lead in writing the manuscript. 2016 Feb;121(2):166-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2015.06.005. In: Storz G, Hengee R (eds) Bacterial stress responses.  |  Histological examination of liver and changes in stomach wall after ethanol administration. Acetaldehyde and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) are produced in the process of alcohol oxidization and are both toxic to the body. In this article, the mechanisms underlying the acetic acid tolerance exhibited by several bacterial strains are reviewed, with emphasis on the knowledge gathered in acetic acid bacteria and E. coli. AJOL and the millions of African and international researchers who rely on our free services are deeply grateful for your contribution. PubMed  At high concentrations of CA, there were no differences in the tested parameters compared to those of normal rats. -, Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Alcohol metabolism in the liver is controlled by the activity of ADH and ALDH [17]. This toxic effect results mostly from acetic acid dissociation inside microbial cells, causing a decrease of intracellular pH and metabolic disturbance by the anion, among other deleterious effects. acetic acid bacteria in the vinegar industry. Acetic acid is produced using ADH, NAD+, and ALDH [9]. 2008 Jun 30;125(1):60-70. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.10.016. Canesso MCC, Lacerda N, Ferreira C, Gonçalves J, Almeida D, Gamba C, et al. J Clin Med Res. In addition, like many other bacteria, acetic bacteria can form a community inside of a biofilm made of cellulose. Acetobacter and Gluconobacter are the two main genera in AAB for aerobic acetic acid fermentations. PDF Published 2014-04-16 Issue Vol. USA.gov. In contrast, only limited microvesicular steatosis was observed in the CA group at 1 h after ethanol administration (Fig. 1998;18:3–13.. Keshavarzían A, Fields JZ, Vaeth J, Holmes EW. The rats were acclimatized for the first week. Epub 2014 Apr 29. They long ago evolved to survive not only by metabolizing simple sugars (i.e. High alcohol-acid transform ratio was still maintained even at higher temperatures, namely, 87.2, 77.1, 14.5 and 2.9% at 41, 42, 43 and 44 °C, respectively. nov., a main component of industrial vinegar fermenters in central Europe. These effects contribute to the progression of alcoholic fatty liver, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and liver cancer, possibly resulting in death [24, 25]. Kim KM, Jung HJ, Sung HM, Wee J-H, Kim TY, Kim KM. Furthermore, CA reduced the degree of transaminase elevation associated with alcohol. J Bacteriol 183:6466–6477, Kleman GL, Strohl WR (1994) Acetate metabolism by Escherichia coli in high-cell-density fermentation. Biotechnol Prog 13:519–523, Lasko DR, Zamboni N, Sauer U (2000) Bacterial response to acetate challenge: a comparison of tolerance among species. PubMed  Natural medicines for alcoholism treatment: a review. Agric Biol Chem 40:2355–2360, Takahashi CM, Takahashi DF, Carvalhal ML, Alterthum F (1999) Effects of acetate on the growth and fermentation performance of Escherichia coli KO11. However, AAB have to tolerate the presence of ethanol and high temperatures, especially in submerged fermentation (SF), which inhibits AAB growth and acid yield. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Agric Biol Chem 44:2901–2906, Ostling CE, Lindgren SE (1993) Inhibition of enterobacteria and Listeria growth by lactic, acetic and formic acids. PubMed Central  To design better preservation strategies based on acetic acid and to improve the robustness of industrial biotechnological processes limited by this acid’s toxicity, it is essential to deepen the understanding of the underlying toxicity mechanisms. EJJ and JK conceived and planned the experiments. The absorbance of each well was measured at 565 nm using a microplate reader. In: Rose AH, Tempest DW (eds) Advances in microbial physiology, vol. The absorbance of each well at 450 nm was measured with a microplate reader. Crit Rev Biotechnol 28:101–124, Ruiz A, Poblet M, Mas A, Guillamon JM (2000) Identification of acetic acid bacteria by RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA and 16S–23S rDNA intergenic spacer. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were purchased from Damul Science (Daejeon, Korea). Xu BJ, Zheng YN, Sung CK. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Chen FS, Li L, Qu J, Chen CX (2009) Cereal vinegars made by solid-state fermentation in China.